Year: 2022 | Month: June | Volume 11 | Issue 2
A Study on Contribution of Formal and Informal Sectors in Indian Seed Domain: An Analytical Study
Formal and informal both seed systems prevails in the country to supply the seed to the farmers. Formal seed systems are deliberately constructed, involving a chain of activities leading to clear products (Certified seed of notified varieties). In an informal seed system, farmers themselves produce, disseminate and access seed directly from their own harvest, through exchange and barter among friends, neighbours, relatives and through local grain markets. The present study was taken with the objectives to study the contribution of formal and informal sectors and also contribution of public and private sector in the total seed supply to the farmers in the country. The study is based on primary as well as secondary data. The primary data was collected from 9800 farmers from 126 districts of 23 states. The results of study showed that breeder seed production in the country has increased from 0.94 lakh quintal to 0.99 lakh quintal, foundation seed production has increased from 9.60 lakh quintal to 18.00 lakh quintal and certified / quality seed has increased from 250 lakh quintal to 399 lakh quintal during the period 2008-09 to 2018-19. The average size of land holding of surveyed farmers was 2.36 ha while average size of land holding at National level is 1.08 ha. The analysis of secondary data showed that contribution of formal and informal sector in Indian seed domain was 54:46 for field crops, 64:36 for cereals, 29:71 for pulses and 44:56 for oilseeds crops. The overall contribution of formal seed sector has increased from 45 per cent to 54 percent during the year 2016 to 2018. The analysis of primary data showed that ratio of formal and informal seed sector was 64.20:35.80 for field crops 67.10:32.90 for cereals, 57.20:42.80 for pulses and 52.30:47.70 for oilseeds. Among different class of seed, highest share was of the TL seed (29.80 per cent) followed by certified seed (27.50 per cent) and foundation seed (6.90 per cent) for field crops. Higher share of formal seed sector in total seed supply of field crops show the concentrated efforts of public and private sector in seed supply. The findings of the present study is crucial for future planning towards quality seed supply through formal seed sector.
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